drive side view of 1965 moulton deluxe

1960s Moulton Mini (Super 4)

The toy that became a Moulton

The bicycle you see here is the smaller of the two models made by Moulton in the 1960s. I have called it the 'Mini', but moulton head badgeit came under various other names as well, depending on the specification.

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The Moulton Mini was based on the design of a children's bike, the Triang 'Junior 1970'. Introduced in 1965, the Junior 1970 was a simplified, scaled-down, licensed version of the original Moulton bicycle. It was produced 1966 ad for breakfast cereal promotion with triang junior 1970 as prizeuntil 1971, when the manufacturer went into liquidation in the face of a changing market.

Alex Moulton must have had his eyes on the Junior 1970 as sales of his original bike plummeted following the introduction of the Raleigh RSW in mid-1965. The Junior 1970 was much closer in size to the RSW, so why not use it to hit back? And that's what he did. Moulton modified the Triang – a modified version of his own bike – and had the Moulton Mini in the shops by new year 1966.

His main change was to the front suspension, which he made the same as his larger bike. (The Triang front suspension was very different, more 'toy' than bicycle.) He retained the Triang-style rear suspension, which differed in that upward movement of the rear fork merely compressed the rubber; on the larger bikes the rubber was 'sheared' horizontally as well, producing (I believe) a 'rising rate' effect. For what it's worth, I'm familiar with both and haven't noticed any difference in that department. The rear fork blades appear straighter and stouter than those on the Junior 1970, which I guess has something to do with the fractured swingarm issues affecting the early big Moultons.

moulton mini handlebar stem
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The frame of the Mini appears to be much simpler and cheaper to make than the frame of the larger bike. It may have been designed to resemble a scaled version of the original 'F' frame, but that's where the similarity ends. jean shrimpton shocking melbourne cup crowd with mini dress 1965On close examination, just about everything about it is very different – it's only the general shape that's the same. What matters though is that it works, and works well, using simple round section tubing and a generally simplified construction compared to the larger frame.

To this writer, the frame of the Mini is like a 'productionised' version of the original 'F' frame, which in comparison looks more like a prototype. The Mini frame shows what the frame of the larger bike would have looked like if someone with as much of an eye for costs as well as perfection had readied it for production – like the Lines Bros, the three 'Lines' who formed the Triang(le) company.

The new small Moulton covered a wide range of conventional frame sizes. The original Moulton, though very long, had been designed to accommodate most adults of either sex. Those left out, from kids upwards, would now be covered by the new entrant. This was possible by the simple expedient of fitting suitably sized handlebars, stem, seat post and crankset, one of the benefits of the open-style frame. non drive side mini moultonThere would be much overlap between the two, so many folk would be well served by either model.

The small Moulton was a success, but it was not enough to save the company, and Raleigh took over production of Moultons, big and small, in 1967. Ever searching for subtle ways to cut costs, they unsubtly omitted the front suspension on some versions of the Mini, with consequences Alex Moulton would likely have predicted (had they been inclined to listen to him). Raleigh-built Moultons lingered until 1974.

This example

This example began life as a 'Super 4', a model primarily intended for adult (up to 178cm/5' 10”) use, though it was advertised as being small enough for six year olds (and small 15 year olds). The bike retains its original finish and still looks half presentable from a distance, despite extensive battle scarring.

The '4' in the model name refers to the four speed Sturmey Archer hub that was originally fitted. That has been replaced by a 1960s Fichtel and Sachs Duomatic hub, a wonderful device colourful cover of old hercules cycle maintenance bookletused as original equipment on the Mini Moulton 'automatic'. The change has obviated the need for rear controls and cables, reduced maintenance and improved the appearance, all while transforming the riding experience. Yes, I like the Duomatic.

Generally, Moulton Minis were fitted with chrome plated steel components, and I've replaced most of them with alloy equivalents. This example (original hub 10/65, frame 893522) came with alloy rims, one of which is unusable. Whatever the material, the wheels are an oddball size; '298' ETRTO. New alloy rims are unavailable and in any case the choice of tyres is very limited, so I took a chance and found that the more common 305-size rims shod with Primo Comets fit quite nicely. And they do allow the bike to roll very well. I've also used suspension inserts, front and rear, to raise the ride height slightly for more pedal clearance.

Taking the small Moulton for a first spin was an uneasy experience. The bike felt twitchy and not terribly stable, and I wondered what I had gotten myself into. That impression faded, the twitchiness morphing into unparalleled manoeuvrability, with stability comparable to that of any other bike. Nevertheless, large pavement irregularities are to be feared; beyond that the light weight, duomatic and manoeuvrability make it a fun ride.

With thanks to

The marvellous Moulton mini, Paul Grogan, 2007
Bicycle Hub

Minutiae

Wheelbase (measured): 98.3cm
Length overall: 139cm (without shopper bag); 144cm (with)
Weight: 12 kg; as modified, including shopper bag
Wheels/tyres: 305 x 37; Primo Comet
Geared hub: 1960s Fichtel and Sachs Duomatic, slightly rust enhanced
Gearing: 53/14 = 51 and 69.4 gear inches
Brakes: Caliper/coaster
Materials: Lugless steel frame; round section tubing, except for main beam. Components all alloy except for original steel front hub, mudguards, headset. Wrights saddle.

Further reading

The original (big) Moulton – The one that started it all
About small wheelers (i.e. why this small wheeler madness?)

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drive side of moulton mini non drive side of moulton mini moulton_mini handlebars from above moulton_mini handlebars moulton_mini showing crash damage to rear mudguard moulton_mini frame detail showing attachment of bottom bracket shell moulton_mini sole surviving plastic cable guide moulton_mini rear hub coaster brake side moulton_mini duomatic rear hub moulton_mini frame detail frame gusset moulton_mini frame gusset moulton_mini front suspension bellows moulton_mini new pedal moulton_mini detail of rear rack rear suspension rubber showing wood block inserted to raise ride height saddle moulton_mini attachment of sidestand moulton_mini bell standish south australia moulton_mini gb stem moulton_mini on scales 12 kilograms